Indus Valley Civilization was one of the world's early civilizations. It is also known as Harappan Civilization. The two major important cities where civilizations flourished include
Lothal is the name of an ancient mound situated in the revenue jurisdiction of Saragwala village in Dholka Taluka of Ahmedabad district. The word 'Lothal' meaning 'place of the dead' in Gujarati language is said to have been formed by combining the words Loth and Thal (sthal). Lothal is essentially a single culture site. The Harappan culture in all its various forms is well represented here.
The Harappans were attracted to the Lothal not only by its sheltered harbor with a rich cotton and rise growing hinterland by also by its bead making industry. The Indus dichotomy of dividing a city into a citadel or Acropolis and a lower town was followed in planning Lothal. The ruler and his entourage lived in the acropolis where houses were built on 3m high platform and provided with all the civic amenities including paved baths, underground drains and a well for potable water.
The lower town, which also enjoyed civic amenities, was subdivided into two sectors. The North-South Arterial Street flanked by shop was the main commercial center in which the rich merchants and ordinary craftsmen lived together. The residential sector lay to the east and west of bazaar.
How to reach
Situated at a distance of 6 kms from Lothal-Bhurkhi railway station. It is well connected by road with Bhurkhi, Dholka and other major towns like Bhavnagar and Rajkot.
Of all the Harappan sites the site of Dholavira locally known as Kotada, in the Khadir Island of Kutch stands apart. It is remarkable for its magnificent planning and enormity of area and deposit. Spread across an area of 600m, the site presents a Harappan city par excellence. On the present showing, it is one of the two largest settlements in India and the fourth or fifth in the subcontinent. It also enjoys the unique distinction of yielding an inscription of ten large-sized signs of the Harappan script.
Considerable pre-planning seems to have gone into the layout and construction of the Acropolis. The embattled 'middle town' admeasures about 350m east-west and 180 to 200. North-south and rises to a height of 8.60m from the general ground level. The built-up area of the 'lower town' occupies nearly 2/3 part of the eastern half of the fortified city. It measures 300m east-west and 350m. north-south approximately attaining the height of 7,50m. Like the 'middle town' this too reveals a constructed area having several built-up projections and open recesses at least on the north-east and south.
How to reach
It is a small village located near the north-western extremity of Khadir. It is approachable from Bhuj via Rappar by a good road.